IBC carried out and presented the findings of the rapid assessment for Cash-for-Work (CfW) appropriateness for communities in Duhok and Ninewa Governorates, Iraq. The project is funded by FAO-Iraq and implemented by International Blue Crescent Relief and Development Foundation (IBC) between the period of 16th November and 10th December 2014
It is estimated that at least 3.000.000 Iraqis were internally displaced as of late November, 2014. This figure complies IDPs in Iraq from two waves of displacement. Around 2 million IDPs displaced between 2013 and 2014 and approximately 1.1 million IDPs displaced between 2006-2008. At least three major displacement flows have been recognized in Iraq in 2014 within the periods of pre June, June-July, and August. Many IDPs have fled to urban areas throughout the country and formed small colonies in camps, in abandoned or used buildings, such as churches, schools, parks and other public areas; and currently they live under very poor conditions.
Duhok is Iraq’s northernmost governorate and is part of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Ninewa is located in northern Iraq along its border with Syria. Currently both Governorates host around 800.000 refugees, IDPs and also host community members that are highly affected from the crisis and needed immediate humanitarian assistance.
In the targeted two governorates most immediate needs are food, shelter support, employment and security. This survey is designed to support the effectiveness of possible CFW activities for crisis hit areas of Duhok and Ninewa Governorates.
The overall objective of the assessment was to conduct rapid assessment to identify the employment opportunities for vulnerable IDP and host communities to provide assistance and improve food security, nutrition, livelihoods through income generation in the crisis-affected areas of Duhok and Ninewa Governorates.
The rapid assessment was carried out to:
a) Identify the areas and needs and potential employment opportunities for IDPs in the areas of host communities, market and labor market functionality, payments/cash disburse mechanisms, identification of challenges and appropriateness of CFW activities.
b) and generate report with details to implement cash for work activities in Duhok and Ninewa.
In general the explored employment activities are for men construction and infrastructure workmen-ship, unskilled laboring in farming; for women planting, crop picking and green housing, in IDP camps involvement to some rehabilitation works.
In rural parts of above stated sub-districts the unskilled labors can be engaged in repair of mills, erection of field toilets and latrines. The other potential activities in the host community areas identified are poultry faming and green houses, where labors can be engaged.
Within this context, a rapid assessment was conducted in Duhok and Ninewa. Local authorities, community leaders, existing community bodies, mukhtars and religious figures were consulted to identify exact locations where the CFW activities can be implemented. During the field work the methodology adopted for data and information collection was interactive community meetings, one to one interviews with IDPs and household community members and consultation meetings with official authorities and official bodies and conducting surveys, for this purpose a detailed questionnaire was used. The information collected during the field work the findings and results were statistically classified and electronically stored in a database program.
The main findings of the assessment show that core relief items and food items are the most commonly cited needs for displaced families. Unemployment is one of the most urgent issues that should be taken into consideration while covering vulnerable community’s un-met needs. Another important finding is that CFW activities may provide relief and help to cater the lifesaving needs of IDPs and improve the damaged and public and communal agriculture related infra-structure and assets of host communities.
Research data analysis revealed that 88% of the assessed family members are currently not earning an income due to un-availably of employment opportunities. 80% of the family members’ employment status has been changed by losing their jobs as a result of the conflict. Approximately 60% of the families stated that at this moment their most three main needs are food, job and agricultural inputs. Cash transfer through cash-for-work program can be obliging to meet the needs of beneficiaries. It has been also noticed that cash assistance is needed to purchase food, paying electricity, gas and fuel and medical treatment
The areas/districts and sub-districts in Ninewa and Dahuk, in terms of stability, security and accessibility it deemed to be moderate and appropriate for implementation of CFW activities.
Over 50% of the assessed communities have more than two female household members. CFW activities for women can be determined by considering the cultural sensitivity and local norms and values. In this context, the potential CFW activities available for women are the planting, green housing and involvement to some types of construction and rehabilitation works do not require heavy labor land development, rehabilitation of shelters and recreational spaces, baby-sitting/child minders in IDP camps for the children of working mothers and soup kitchen cookery.
ABOUT the AUTHORS
Dr. Kubilay KAPTAN as the Technical Supervisor,
Nalan ÜKER – M.Uğur GÜNGÖR as the Reporters,
Eng. Uygar ÜKER and Eng. Onur YILMAZ as the technical experts,
Sociologist Gökhan MISIRLIOĞLU as the field coordinator.